Strona główna » Liceum » » Angielski

British customs

Poprzednia praca: Learning English is enjoyable when you love this language
Następna praca: Describe the life of a person you admire.

Treść: Expectant mothers in many parts of Wales had to be very careful what they did before the baby was born. For example, if she stepped over a grave, it was believed that the baby would die soon after birth or would be still-born. If she dipped her hands into dirty water, the child would grow up having coarse hands. If the child was born under a new moon, it would grow up to be eloquent in speech. If born at night, it would be able to see visions, ghosts and phantom funerals. During the christening ceremony, if the baby held up its head, it would live to be very old. If, however, it allowed its head to fall back or to rest on the arm of the person holding it, the child would die an early death. At some christening ceremonies, specially designed drinking glasses were used to consume prodigious amounts of liquor in toasts to the newly baptized infant. (to be fair, it has to be remembered that it is only in this century that most of the water supplies in Wales have become fit to drink, and beer was always not only considered a safe drink, but was also thought to confer strength).
Return to the Wales Home Page
Courting Cake
This is a real summer treat and a good way of using up slightly bruised or over-ripe strawberries or making just a few go further. It was originally made in the north of England by young girls for their betrotheds, hence the name. Makes about 16 slices.
INGREDIENTS: Butter - 225 g (8 oz), Caster sugar - 225 g (8 oz), Eggs - 4 beaten, Self-raising flour - 350 g (12 oz), Milk - 2-3 tbsp, Double cream - 300 ml (10 fl oz). Strawberries - 225 g (8 oz) sliced, Icing sugar - to decorate.
COOKING: 1. Pre-heat oven to 190C / 375F / Gas 5. Grease and line the bases of three 18 cm (7 inch) round cake tins.
2. Cream the butter and sugar together until pale and fluffy. Gradually add the eggs, a little at a time, beating well after each addition. Fold in the flour, then add enough milk to give a soft dropping consistency.
3. Divide the mixture evenly between the prepared tins and bake for 25-30 minutes, until well risen and firm to the touch, swapping the position of the top and bottom cakes halfway through the cooking. Turn out and leave to cool on a wire rack.
4. Whip the cream until it just holds its shape. Sandwich the cakes together with the cream and the strawberries, reserving a few for decoration. Dredge the top with icing sugar and decorate with the reserved strawberries.
Old Customs of Berkshire
Southern England
In the early 19th century, the age-old custom of electing the Mayor of Bartlemas on Mace Monday (the first Monday after 25/26 July), was still observed in Newbury. After the election at the Bull and Dog Inn, a dinner of bacon and beans was served. Afterwards, a cabbage stalk on a pole was paraded in the Mayoral Procession.
Until 1883, a type of cake special to Berkshire was sold at the Clementide sheep fair in Lambourn on St. Clement\'s Day, 23rd November. Made from a special dough, with butter, currants, spice, candied peel and sugar, the cakes could be plate-sized and cost up to 5 shillings. The Clementide Celebrations were popular on the Downs as St. Clement was the patron saint of blacksmiths and was thus associated with Wayland the Smith who was said to have lived up on the Ridgeway.
At Cumnor on Christmas day afternoon, parishioners were traditionally entertained at the vicarage, with ale and beer brewed from four bushels of malt, bread made from two bushels of wheat and over 25 kgs. of cheese.
There is a curious legal custom from both Enborne and Chaddleworth parish. If a copyholder\'s wife survived him, she forfeited her rights to her husband\'s lands. However, if she rode into court backwards on the back of a large black ram, the manor steward would be obliged to return her lands when she repeated the following lines:
Here I am, riding upon a black ram,
Like a whore as I am;
And, for my Crincum Crancum,
Have lost my Bincum Bancum;
And, for my tail\'s game,
Have done this worldly shame.
Therefore, I pray you, Mr. Steward,
Let me have my land again.
Aldermaston is one of only eleven places, left in the country, that still holds a Candle Auction. Once common, these rare affairs are controlled by a tallow candle in Aldermaston Parish Hall. A pin is placed an inch from the flame and bidding continues until the pin falls. The last to bid secures the lot. In Aldermaston\'s case this will be the three year lease of a field called Church Acre.
Lady Elizabeth Marvyn, widow of Richard Perkins of Ufton Court, left money for the Ufton Bread Dole in her will, of 1581, in thanks for finding her way home after getting lost in some local woods. It is distributed every Palm Sunday from a certain window at the Court.
Though once widespread, Hungerford is now the only place in the country still to maintain tha annual Hocktide festival on the sceond Tuesday after Easter. To celebrate the town\'s patronage from Prince John of Gaunt, the town-crier blows his horn and calls together the Hocktide Court in the town hall. Here, all commoners, living in the most ancient house in the High Street, must pay a fine to ensure their rights of fishing and grazing. While the court continues, \"Tutti-Men\" with florally decorated poles are led through the streets by the \"Orange-Man\" to collect kisses from all the ladies resident in the High Street. They receive an orange in return. Various traditional suppers, ale-tastings, lunches and balls follow.
The old Berkshire custom of performing \"Rough Music\" is well recorded in several villages, including Arborfield and Warfield, during the nineteenth century. If a husband was known or suspected of having beaten his wife, the neighbours would gather at night outside their house and, with sheep bells, horns, pots and pans, anything they could bang together, they would make \"Rough Music\" to reprimand the man and keep him awake.
Wokingham was once well-known for its bull-baiting. In 1661, a local Butcher, George Staverton, left the rent from his house to provide a bull for the townsfolk to bait in the Market Place. This horrible sport continued in the town annually until banned by the Corporation in 1821. The nation following suit six years later; but the Wokingham bull was still provided as beef for the poor and overenthusiastic locals siezed the creature in 1832 and held the last ever bull-baiting in the country.
The \"Scouring of the White Horse\" at Uffington used to take place every seven years. Locals gathered on White Horse Hill to clear the ancient chalk hill-figure of encroaching flora. Afterwards, there was a fair with many games and competitions, including the old Berkshire sport of Back-Swording. The festival may date back to Bronze Age Pagan. King Alfred is thought to have cleaned the beast in Saxon times, but the ceremony lapsed after 1857.
During the third week in July, the ancient ceremony of Swan-Upping takes place along the Thames in eastern Berkshire, between Windsor and Pangbourne. Red, green and blue liveried swanherds from the Queen\'s, Vintners\' Company and Dyers\' Company crews, respectively, row up the river seeking out swans. The birds are turned upside down (upping) and have their beaks checked for the customary nicks which show to which crew they belong. New cygnets are nicked accordingly. At Windsor, the crews salute the Queen and there is a large feast of roast cygnet upon the course\'s completion.

On Royal and National occasions, large crowds gather beneath Abingdon\'s fine town hall in orer to receive the traditional distribution of celebratory buns. Often marked with suitable initials, they ware hurled from the roof by the town officials. The origin of the ceremony is unknown, but the local museum has a collection of buns dating back two centuries.
The \"Mayor of Ock Street\" is elected in Abingdon every year on the Saturday on or before 20th June. The residents of the street vote for one amongst the local Morris Men, who is declared Mayor at 4:00pm. The ceremony has associated with an ox roast ever since the winner won a pair of ox hornns after a dispute at the Abingdon Fair of 1700.
General News of Interest
A RECENTLY renovated 18th-century London house, which was once the residence of Dr Samuel Johnson - a literary phenomenon and lexicographer - has been reopened to the public. For years visitors have flocked there from many parts of the world to enjoy the environment in which he produced the formidable Dictionary of the English Language which laid the foundations for modern methods of lexicography. For the visitor, 17 Gough Square - near Fleet Street and St Paul\'s Cathedral - is a time-warp, the outcome of a determination by today\'s Johnson House trustees to recreate the contemporary atmosphere as faithfully as possible.
MINIMALIST artist Martin Creed has won the United Kingdom\'s leading art award, the Turner Prize. The win provided another talking point this year because the director of the Tate Britain art gallery, Sir Nicholas Serota, and the judges did not fight shy of the avant-garde. Creed won for his display of an empty gallery space with lights switching on and off every few seconds. In a ceremony which linked the worlds of art, music and fashion, emphasising the UK\'s increasing cultural significance, Creed was presented with his 20,000 pounds award by global music icon Madonna (both pictured) who lives in London.
LATEST research from Barclays looks at the factors that contribute to the strongest business relationships. The findings show that the \"old school network\" is officially dead with just one per cent of business people saying that attending the same school or university helps to make their business relationship work. Instead, the keys to a successful business relationship are seen as openness and honesty, with almost half (47 per cent) of the respondents mentioning these factors as important. Regular communication, efficiency and reliability also feature highly on the list of favoured attributes of a business relationship, but less than a third (28 per cent) felt that it was important to like their business contacts. The business relationship research shows that different behaviours and attitudes are clearly identified with the strongest and weakest relationships, and that certain relationship styles are more effective than others. The research has enabled Barclays to identify the most preferred type of business contact by analysing the behaviour and attitude in the strongest types of relationships.
A THIRD of men in the United Kingdom live on a diet of beer and fast food, a major investigation into the nation\'s dietary habits has revealed. Researchers who broke diets down into several different groups found that \"beer and convenience\" was the biggest category for men. Men in this group ate large quantities of ready-made meat products, fried potato chips and white bread, washed down with beer. They avoided healthier choices such as wholegrain cereals and nuts, fish, low-fat dairy products, fruit juices and wines. Women were not much more health conscious, the scientists found. The most popular diet for them was the \"traditional British diet\", high in refined cereals, sugars and dairy products. Although these women preferred tea to alcohol they also ate more chips, cakes and confectionery than vegetables, fruit and wholegrain cereals. The findings, from a team at University College London, were reported in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.
Sublime or ridiculous? You decide.
Visitors to London who travel by black taxis will now be able to enjoy more than just the usual banter for which cabbies are so well known. A new computer-based, multimedia entertainment and information program will be vying for their attention during the journey as well. The in-taxi televisual system - claimed to be the first of its kind in the world - will allow passengers to browse through a selection of entertainment on a small flat-screen monitor fitted into the back of the driver\'s seat. These features include a London guide highlighting tourist information, London history, sport, business, shopping and technology. After successful trials last year, Cabvision, a media company which supplies airtime and sponsorship opportunities for advertisers on taxicabs, is installing the system in 100 of London\'s familiar black taxis.
There is something undeniably appealing about a well-planned robbery. The idea of the outlaw robbing the train, making off with the loot, and evading authorities has been the stuff of countless movies. Many root for the robbers, even though they are on the wrong side of the law. They win hearts because somehow their clever scheming captures the sense of larceny in us all.
CAPERS: THE MEN, THE GAMBLES, THE HEISTS revisits some of the most enticing robberies of all time. Explore the details of successful plans like the \"Brinks Heist,\" where eight men in Halloween masks proved the lauded Brinks security system was not impregnable by stealing $2.7 million in 17 minutes. Ponder the fate of D.B. Cooper, who jumped from a jet and seemingly off the face of the earth with a hoard of $200,000. And examine the exquisite details of the Great Train Robbery, perhaps the most celebrated caper in history.
From the classic heists of a bygone age to the new face of crime in cyberspace, THE 20th CENTURY explores the allure of beating the system and the exploits of those who have done so with style.
They first became known to the Western World when British commanders clashed with them in the hills of Nepal in 1816. After the war ended, the victorious British actively recruited their former foe for their own forces, and a military legend was born.
They have been called \"the ideal infantrymen\" by those fortunate enough to command them. Brave, tough, patient and fiercely loyal, Gurkhas served in both World Wars, in conditions from the blistering deserts to the steamy jungles of Asia. THE GURKHAS tells the remarkable story of these storied soldiers, from their 19th century battles against the English to their astonishing success fighting for the British Empire in history\'s greatest conflicts. Explore their incredible record of battlefield valor, and see footage of them in action.
From the Himalayan foothills to the bloody grounds of the deadliest battles of all time, this is the definitive look at some of the world\'s greatest soldiers.
Black Cabs All of London\'s Black Cabs are licensed by The Public Carriage Office and all drivers must apply to do \"The Knowledge\". This means they must have an in depth knowledge of the topography of London, (no small task). For All London \"Green Badge\" holders, they must have detailed knowledge within a six mile radius of Charing Cross, the ancient center of London, based on 400 routes as defined by the Public Carriage Office \"Guide to Learning the Knowledge of London\" (the \'Blue Book\'). They also need to know the places of interest and important landmarks on the route and within a quarter mile radius of both start and finish points. Candidates are tested on the knowledge during one to one interviews (called appearances) where they are given start and finish points and required to detail the shortest routes between them. All this goes to the point that Black Cabs are safe to take anywhere in London and the drivers, if you can understand their accent, can answer most of your questions.
The cost of any journey is by the meter, which counts time and mileage and are tested regularly. Black cabs can be hired for tours and day trips out of London to Canterbury and Dover Castle, Hampton Court, The Cotswolds, Stonehenge and the like. Click here for more information on Tours and Day Trips by Taxi
Mini Cabs & Taxi Touts
Unlicensed mini-cabs are cheaper than black cabs, as you would imagine, because anyone can be a mini cab driver; no test, no knowledge, no meters. For these reasons, mini-cabs are not allowed to stop and pick you up on on the street. You have to phone (ring) them and tell them where to pick you up, or \"collect you\". Minicab touts abound in Soho, Theatreland and other busy tourist areas. They will try to get you into a cab that\'s waiting round the corner. We recommend you avoid them at all costs.
Taxi touts hand about at railway stations and airports. They\'ll offer to call you a cab or carry your bags. Just say NO. Taxi touts are totally illegal. Remember, unlicensed mini-cabs cannot pick you up on the street. In most cases, these touts will try to get you into a private car. Again, absolutely refuse. Just take your bags and walk away.
London Transport buses, the famous red doubledeckers, are everywhere in London. They stop at 17,000 bus stops and offer great views of London and its attractions, monuments and landmarks.
The Bus network has two fare zones, Central London (Ł1 tickets) and outer London (70p. tickets). You can pay the bus driver (conductor) or flash your Travelcard. if you have the wrong ticket you will be liable to a Ł5 Penalty Fare.
Buses are safe, many have video cameras on board, and all of them have two-way radios. Be careful getting on and off. Wait for the bus to come to a complete stop. To get off, ring the bell once and give the driver some warning. Also watch yourself when crossing the road since buses sometimes drive in special road lanes against the traffic flow.
Night Buses pass through Trafalgar Square and serve theatres, cinemas and entertainment areas. Night buses only stop if you ring the bell, othewise they just keep driving. You can pick up a credit card sized timetable and a Night Bus booklet at travel information centres, some newsagents and major Underground stations. Night Bus fares are slightly higher than on day buses and they don\'t accept one day tickets or Family Travelcard. Children pay adult fares after 10PM too.
Private Car
We defintely recommended that you not rent a car and drive in London if you don\'t know the lay of the land and especially if you aren\'t used to driving on the left. London drivers are unforgiving and that\'s putting it mildly. If you choose to get about the city by car, we recommend that you hire a driver for the day. It\'s expensive, but you will avoid a lot of problems that could absolutely ruin your day.
Edinburgh International Science Festival
11th - 22nd April 2003
Science? Festival? Two words that don\'t normally go together, but what a combination they make.
Twelve days of non-stop events - shows, workshops, presentations, hands-on activities, exhibitions and tours - designed to inspire, stimulate and entertain.
Come to the Science Festival in Edinburgh and do something you\'ve never done before:
- climb up a 4 metre high nose
- hear the confessions of a psychic
- dig up a life-size dinosaur
- take part in The Filthiest Show on Earth
- meet your scientific heroes and heroines
Whether you want to be excited, challenged or simply amused, the Science Festival has something for you.
Scottish International Children\'s Festival
26th May - 4th June 2003
Created and produced by imaginate - promoting and developing performing arts for children across Scotland.
The Bank of Scotland Children\'s International Theatre Festival is Britain\'s biggest performing arts festival for children and young people. Theatre shows by the world\'s leading theatre companies for children. A spell-binding feast of entertainment, enough to capture the imagination of any 3 to 12 year old.

Edinburgh International Jazz & Blues Festival
25th July - 3rd August 2003
Longest running jazz festival in the UK. Concert halls, theatres, clubs, pubs, open air events, featuring all styles of jazz from international artistes. 50,000 attendees.
more info>
Edinburgh Military Tattoo
1st - 23rd August 2003
Scotland\'s stunning annual outdoor military spectacular set against the magnificent backdrop of Edinburgh Castle. Featuring Pipes & Drums, Massed Military Bands, display teams, dancers and acts from around the world.
more info>
Edinburgh Festival Fringe
3rd - 25th August 2003
The Edinburgh Fringe is unique, breaking its own record every year as the largest arts festival on the planet (Guinness Book of Records). Each year it brings thousands of performances of hundreds of shows in nearly 200 venues across Scotland\'s capital city.
Edinburgh International Book Festival
9th - 25th August 2003
Edinburgh International Book Festival is the world\'s biggest book festival. We present an wide and varied programme for both adults and children including discussions, readings, lectures, debates and workshops, all in one of Edinburgh\'s most beautiful spaces, Charlotte Square Gardens.
more info>
Edinburgh International Festival
10th - 30th August 2003
The Edinburgh International Festival 2003 runs from 10 - 30 August.
Each year the Edinburgh International Festival stages one of the greatest celebrations of the arts, attracting audiences from around the world to the city\'s thrilling atmosphere. The festivities offer a unique opportunity to experience the excitement of live performance by internationally renowned artists as well as the joy of discovering new and unfamiliar works.
Edinburgh International Film Festival
13rd - 24th August 2003
Love the movies? Then prepare to fall in love with the Film Festival. If it\'s worth watching, we\'ll be showing it. You can be the first to see an amazing range of movie premieres.
Edinburgh\'s Hogmanay
29th December 2003 - 1st January 2004
Hogmanay is the Scottish New Year, celebrated on 31st December every year. Never being slow to spot a good excuse for a party, the night involves a celebratory drink or two, fireworks and the kissing of complete strangers not necessarily in that order.
Edinburgh\'s Hogmany is a four day free for all celebrating the new year. Visitors enjoy 4 days of fabulous events throughout the city including well loved favourites such as the Torchlight Procession and the world famous Royal Bank Street Party, as well as many new events.
Mousehole Christmas Lights
Christmas Illuminations
Mousehole | Newlyn Fishing | Rock | Padstow Obby Oss
Mousehole Xmas Illuminations Mousehole is a fishing village in West Cornwall with a most beautiful harbour. In late September the village begins preparation for their famous Christmas Lights, raising money for charity for nearly 40 years. Switching them on from the Saturday in the Middle of December, usually with Mousehole Male Voice Choir and a Brass Band present,# until the Friday at the end of the first week of the New Year A spectacular and dazzling Display of Illuminations from Dancing Reindeer to Santa Claus, to Christmas Pudding complete with sprigs of holly. A church with music playing. A cross with two angels. A huge lit Happy Xmas, switching to Happy New Year every few seconds. A dolphin spouting water. A multi coloured serpent bobbing in the water. A cracker, a pudding, multi lights festooned along the harbour walls. There is even a Star Gazzy Pie in lights, a dish unique to Mousehole, prepared in the Ship Inn, ate on 23rd December- Tom Bawcock\'s Eve.
Long ago Winter storms had prevented the fishing boats putting to sea. In a lull in the bad weather one of their number Tom Bawcock managed to catch enough fish to prevent the village from starving. A pie of many fishes was made from the catch -Star Gazzy Pie. Nowadays people travel many miles from all over Cornwall and furthur afield to see \'The Lights\' Not only are the houses and cottages decorated but even the boats bobbing in the Harbour. There are even helicopter flights from Penzance to see the spectacle.
Star Gazy Pie Recipe For those of you keen to make your own.
Ingredients: Pasty, 5 or 6 cornish pilchards, 2 or 3 boiled eggs (sliced). Seasoning. Parsley.
Method: Prepare Pastry. Put fish whole, but cleaned in a pie dish. Add sliced eggs and seasoning. Lay pastry over, pushing pichards heads through. Cook in hot oven until golden brown. Place sprig of parsely in each fishes mouth. Serve piping hot.
\"The Lights are on individual time switches and come on around 5.00 pm and go off at midnight. These times are kept to as closely as possible , but do vary very slightly due to the timeswitches accuracy. Part of the delight of watching the spectacle is not knowing which will be lit next. On December the 19th they turn off all the lights at 8.00pm and then back on again at 9.00pm. The cross and angels remain lit however. This is done as a memorium to the crew of the lost Penlee Lifeboat\". Cornwall Christmas Mousehole Illuminations. There are lots of places to stay in West Cornwall Bed and Breakfast.
Arrive early or very late , many many people visit each year. Have a bite to eat or a drink whilst browsing the gift shops, waiting for the sun to set behind the hill. On a still afternoon the smoke from countless coal fires hangs low in the air. Waves tumbling against the harbour wall and timber baulks closing the entrance to the Winter storms. Seagulls flying overhead to nest on St Clements Isle. Don\'t miss Newlyn Xmas Lights...

Widzisz tylko część pracy, aby zobaczyć całość, musisz się zalogować.

Nie masz jeszcze u Nas konta? Na co czekasz? ZAREJESTRUJ SIĘ JUŻ TERAZ

Zapomniałeś hasła? Skorzystaj z formularza przypominającego hasło.

Czytano: 333826 , autor: Mafej , Ocena: 728.93

      Blip Śledzik Twitter Facebook Buzz Wykop

Inne podobne teksty do tytułu British customs

British government since the 1800s
Differences between Polish and British education system
Tge greatest women roles in contemporary British, American and Polish cinema.
British or American customs you would like to describe.
The differences between the British and American educational systems.
British Holidays - Guy Fawkes Day
The influence of British culture of the lives of teenagers in Poland

Losowe teksty z tej samej kategorii

Superstitions in Poland
"A step in time" journey 2100 A.D.
Biografia Van Gogha
Rabbits are good house pets.
Advertising - a form of manipulation or a marketing tool.
Irregular verbs (2)
Vocabulary - crimes.
Tłumaczenie ,,Kamizelki" B.Prusa
My diary in 2037

Wasze komentarze

Brak komentarzy dla danej pracy.

Zmień kategorię:

Zobacz także:

Antyk i Biblia Antyk i Biblia
Barok Barok
Biografie Biografie
Charakterystyki Charakterystyki
Gramatyka Gramatyka
Inne Inne
Konspekty Konspekty
Listy Listy
Materiały do matury Materiały do matury
Młoda polska Młoda polska
Motywy Motywy
Oświecenie Oświecenie
Plany wydarzeń Plany wydarzeń
Pozytywizm Pozytywizm
Prace przekrojowe Prace przekrojowe
Prasówki Prasówki
Prezentacje maturalne Prezentacje maturalne
Recenzje Recenzje
Renesans Renesans
Romantyzm Romantyzm
Rozprawki Rozprawki
Streszczenia Streszczenia
Średniowiecze Średniowiecze
Tematy wolne Tematy wolne
Wiersze Wiersze
Wspołczesność Wspołczesność
XX lecie XX lecie

A A A A - zmień wielkość czcionki

Oceń pracę:

Ocena pracy wynosi 728.93.

Informacje o pracy:

⇒Dodano: 2008-10-26 11:34:52
⇒Czytano: 333826
Autor: Mafej

Dodatkowe opcje:

Drukuj stronę
Wyślij znajomemu

Dodaj komentarz: